Introduction to Annotation
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Introduction to GO Annotation
Semantics of a GO Annotation
- GO annotations are associations between a gene or gene product and a GO term, supported by evidence and a reference.
- GO annotations represent the normal, in vivo biological role of genes or gene products.
- GO terms belong to one of three aspects: Molecular Function (MF), Cellular Component (CC), and Biological Process (BP).
- Association with a gene or gene product product to a term from these ontologies is a statement that means:
- Molecular Function: the molecular activities of gene products
- Cellular Component: where gene products are active
- Biological Process: pathways and larger processes made up of the activities of molecular multiple gene products
General Principles of GO Annotation
- A gene product can be annotated to zero or more terms from each ontology.
- Gene products are annotated to the most detailed (i.e. granular) level in the ontology that is supported by the experimental evidence in the cited reference.
- Annotation to a GO term implies annotation to its parents.
- GO annotations are meant to reflect the most up-to-date view of a gene product's role in biology.
- Because biological knowledge changes, annotations for a given gene product may change to reflect changes in knowledge and/or changes in the ontology.
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