Minutes Heart Development workshop (Archived)

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genome biol 2008 Jan 9:9 (1):R6 ES cells differentiation into cardiac cells

Check terms are applicable across Bilateria

  • heart

Current GO description: The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood.

  • blood
  • vessels

Current GO description: The blood vessel is the vasculature carrying blood.

  • blood circulation

Current GO description: The flow of blood through the body of an animal, enabling the transport of nutrients to the tissues and the removal of waste products.

Not all invertebrates transport O2 through 'blood', Susan proposes to remove hemolymph because it is not used and just relax the definition of blood from blood circulation.
Shomou: we need to consider the evolutionary relationship, and in this case there is an evolutionary relationship.
Paul: some organisms this might not work for
David: redifined blood within blood circulation
Varsha: should we have child terms, eg O2 carrying and O2 not carried
Susan: need to move onto open and closed circulatory system. Look at merging hemolymph circulation into blood circulation.
David: Merge hemolymph circulation into blood circulation and hemolymph circulation as a narrow synonym.
Susan: Cardiogenesis needs to be synonym of heart formation.
David: make Cardiogenesis a related synonym.

Cardiac precursor tissues and cells

Development of primary and secondary heart fields
cardiac muscle cell specification/differentiation/development
cardiac endothelial cell specification/differentiation/development

Determination of left/right symmetry
David: Are you actively creating asymmetry or breaking symmetry.
Shoumo: Breaking symmetry
Doug: the gene would determine symmetry in an asymmetrical situation.
Shoumo: radial symmetry, sea urchin.
Doug: Consider change to asymmetry
David: Keep determination of left/right symmetry
Shomou: Adding part_of child terms, detection of nodal flow (created by cilium).

Heart Field Specification
Paul: is there one, two or three fields, this is controversial area? Depends whether this is based on lineage, expansion.
David: Keep general, and describe what is known within child terms, but keep controversial issues out of GO. In different organisms presence of 2 heart fields is accepted. therefore can have this terms but the annotators will not use them in organisms where descriptions are more controversial.
Shomou: what do we mean by heart field?
David: Definition: The region of the lateral plate mesoderm is delineated into the area in which the heart will develop.

Heart induction
David: Definition: positive regulation heart field specification
Agreed on signaling pathways involved in heart field specification: BMP signaling, FGF signaling, WNT canonical and WNT non-canonical signaling.
Shomou: BMP is from endoderm, signals to mesoderm
Paul: FGF from mesoderm,
David: Endoderm/mesoderm involved in heart field specification (induction)
Add parent: Mesodermal-endodermal cell signaling
Add child terms: BMP signaling
David: Ideally Signaling through SMADs should be a child of BMP signaling, to be developed through signaling working group.
Paul: FGF derived from mesoderm and endoderm.
David: create FGF and WNT signaling child terms
Discussion on Notch signaling
Peter: retinoid signaling, more involved in patterning than induction

Paul/Peter: Secondary and primary heart field child terms of heart field specification
Paul: Anterior heart field narrow synonym of Secondary heart field
Paul: Primary heart field specifications: bilateral field of cells mostly fated to form the primary heart field left ventricle.
Paul: Secondary heart field specification: will primarily form the right ventricle (Arterial pole and venous pole).
Paul: second heart field needed as exact synonym
Shomou: Left right patterning in lateral mesoderm, needs to be included in the field specification
Paul: Additional of TGFbeta signaling pathways to this branch and to detection of nodal flow

Heart cone Zebrafish has heart cone
Mammals have heart crest
Ross:primordial cells
David: Morphogenesis term?
Doug: formation of a tube?
Cardiogenic plate morphogenesis (formation) (part of heart morphogenesis) with cone and crest as child terms.
Shomou: first anatomically recoganizable structure derived from the heart field
David: under embryonic heart tube formation add heart cone formation (fish) and heart crestant formation (mammals) and link into morphogenesis of an epithelial fold
heart cone David: Neural crest migration involved in heart crest formation
Ross/Peter/Paul: this should be a part_of heart development
David: Can we define when the heart development start?
Paul: Neural crest migration part of heart development
Shomou: neural crest structually part of heart and regulates morphogenesis

Cardiac cell migration, Heart morphogenesis

  • morphogenic and migratory changes to those cell populations as they move towards formation of the heart tube
  • L/R patterning
  • neural crest contribution to the heart

Paul/Shoumo/David: Heart jogging should be a sibling of Heart looping as child of heart formation
David/Doug: Cell migration involved in heart formation as child of heart formation
Paul: Cardiac progenitor cell migration, infers some kind of committment already to cardiac cells. synonym cardioblast migration. Paul: Convergence, converge in one area and then migrate (convergence extension) Paul/Peter: vasculature, endothelial, smooth muscle, aorta, epicardium, encapsulate migratory vasculature. Coronary vasculature development: New terms vessel formation/angiogenesis/vasculargenesis/arteriogenesis and new terms describing cell migration.

Heart structure formation

  • heart chamber, septum, trabeculae, valves
  • SF - heart hypertrophy, septum morphogenesis, chamber development, heart valves

Cell types in heart:
Cardiac fibroblasts epithelial-mesenchymal transition in originate in epicardial lining
Cardiac fibroblasts neural crest derived
Bundle of His (tissue not cell type) AV node (tissue) Purkinje fiber (tissue) cardiomyocytes

  • pacemaker cells (cardiac conduction) with child terms AV node cells, SA node cells
  • His-Purkinje (cardiac conduction)

neuron (autonomic nervous system)
endothelial smooth muscle, there are heart and blood vessel specific types

vascular smooth muscle derived from epicardial cells
neural crest derived from glial cells
endocardial cells these are heart and endothelial
myocardium specialise cell types:

  • secreting
  • atria
  • ventricular

David to discuss inclusion of pericardium as part of heart with MGI anatomy ontology
Viewing MGI anatomy ontology.
David to recommend inclusion of His-Purkinje fibre/system

Chamber morphogenesis
atrium morphogenesis(L/R)
all terms listed in SF are required. Shoumo: myocardium morphogenesis David: need to add development equivalents Shomumo: trebeculation, compacts as mycardial ventricular myocardium

  • compact myocardium (L/R)
  • trebecular myocardium (L/R)
  • atria myocardium

Paul: ballooning - developmental growth involved in morphogenesis (L ventrical)

  • Radial growth - right ventrical
  • circumferential growth - left ventrical
  • Radial growth - right ventrical

all involved in shaping the heart

Ross/Paul: embryonic cardiac hypertrophy (part of (cell) heart growth) is distinct from adult cardiac hypertrophy This then child of development cardiac hypertrophy.
Post natal, post-embryonic cardiac hypertrophy part of heart growth, also a child of development cardiac hypertrophy.
Other hypertrophy terms required:
physiological hypertrophy-due to physical excersize, beneficial
pathological hypertrophy due to stress, leads to heart re-modelling and ultimately heart failure.

hypertrophy used for increase of cell size
hyperplasia used for increase in cell number

Heart septum morphogenesis move heart septum morphogenesis to become a child of heart chamber morphogenesis children of heart septum morph

  • outflow tract septum morphogenesis [i] outflow tract morphogenesis
  • membranous septum morph [p] ventricular septum morph
  • muscular septum morphogenesis [p] ventricular septum morph

SF - heart hypertrophy, septum morphogenesis, chamber development, heart valves

Cardiac conduction

Development of the electrical signaling systems of the heart
SF - cardiac conduction

Outflow tract development

adult and embryonic outflow tract very different Valve morphogenesis see SF item for full list of valves SF cardiac valve development
endocardial cushion (embryonic)

  • outflow tract
  • inflow tract

Valve morphogenesis

  • cell proliferation involved in valve morphogenesis
  • regulation of the above

cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition occurs other than in endocardial cushion formation, therefore this needs renaming.

What types of cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition?

  • epicardial gives rise to fibroblasts (cardiac skeleton structure) and smooth muscle cells
  • cushions

Neural crest part of outflow tract
endocardial neural crest fusion
cell migration/fusion as part of cushion
morphogenesis of polarised epithelium child term morphogenesis planar cell polarity
Apoptosis part of outflow tract

  • Valve morphogenesis
  • cushion morphogenesis

alignment as heart loops

  • morphogenic parent
  • neurocrest contribution

Need 3 siblings:
remodeling of atria/ventrical junction (A/V junction remodeling)
wedging term (margaret Kirby) [Kirby book]
remodeling of atria/ventrical junction needs child terms:

  • apoptosis
  • cell proliferation
  • regulation of the above term(s)

Inflow tract covered with cushions

Extracellular matrix major component is cardiac jelly, cardiac jelly is anatomical structure.