Polyketide synthases

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Originated in SF 1866936

See also SF 2957230

Examples of multistep polyketide biosynthetic processes. To do: check that none of these happen in a concerted process (very unlikely).

Three malonyl transfers and three decarboxylations

  • benzophenone synthase activity (GO:0047181), EC:2.3.1.151
  • acridone synthase activity (GO:0050635), EC:2.3.1.159

Three malonyl transfers and four decarboxylations

  • naringenin-chalcone synthase activity (GO:0016210), EC:2.3.1.74
  • 6'-deoxychalcone synthase activity (GO:0033808), EC:2.3.1.170
  • pinosylvin synthase activity (GO:0050198), EC:2.3.1.146
  • trihydroxystilbene synthase activity (GO:0050350), EC:2.3.1.95
  • phloroisovalerophenone synthase activity (GO:0050634), EC:2.3.1.156
  • 6-methylsalicylic acid sytnhase activity (GO:0050641), EC:2.3.1.165

These are actually multistep processes involving three malonyl transfers and four decarboxylations. The overall details are described in PMID: 11959984. The reaction specifics for GO:0016210 are in PMID: 10653632, which describes how it's a succession of malonyl-CoA decarboxylations followed by transfer of the acetyl group to the polyketide chain.

Six malonyl transfers

  • erythronolide synthase activity (GO:0047879), EC:2.3.1.94

Eight malonyl transfers

  • lovastatin nonaketide synthase activity (GO:0050637), EC:2.3.1.161

the clue here is in the synonym: acyl-CoA:malonyl-CoA C-acyltransferase (decarboxylating, oxoacyl- and enoyl-reducing, thioester-hydrolysing)

Uncounted

  • mycocerosate synthase activity (GO:0050111), EC:2.3.1.111 [0 gene products]
  • biphenyl synthase activity (GO:0033815), EC:2.3.1.177 [0 gene products]
  • icosanoyl-CoA synthase activity (GO:0033807), EC:2.3.1.119 [0 gene products]

transferring a group + decarboxylation:

  • GO:0008710 : 8-amino-7-oxononanoate synthase activity [22 gene products]
  • GO:0033817 : beta-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein synthase II activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0033818 : beta-ketoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein synthase III activity [0 gene products]

transferring two benzoyl groups:

  • GO:0050156 : ornithine N-benzoyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring six groups + decarboxylation:

  • GO:0047181 : benzophenone synthase activity [0 gene products]

other children, sorted by group transferred

transferring an unspecified acyl group:

  • GO:0050200 : plasmalogen synthase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0043764 : UDP-3-O-[3-hydroxymyristoyl] glucosamine N-acyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a tigloyl group:

  • GO:0047203 : 13-hydroxylupinine O-tigloyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring an oxalyl group:

  • GO:0047189 : 2,3-diaminopropionate N-oxalyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a propanoyl group:

  • GO:0034851 : 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-oxopentanoyl-CoA 2-C-propanoyl transferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring an acetyl group:

  • GO:0034945 : 2,6-dimethyl-5-methylene-3-oxo-heptanoyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0034915 : 2-methylhexanoyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0018712 : 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA thiolase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0043720 : 3-keto-5-aminohexanoate cleavage activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0018713 : 3-ketopimelyl-CoA thiolase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0033812 : 3-oxoadipyl-CoA thiolase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0050636 : vinorine synthase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0043884 : CO-methylating acetyl-CoA synthase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a benzoyl group:

  • GO:0050642 : 2-alpha-hydroxytaxane 2-O-benzoyltransferase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0047672 : anthranilate N-benzoyltransferase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0018711 : benzoyl acetate-CoA thiolase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0047962 : glycine N-benzoyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a propionyl group:

  • GO:0034919 : butyryl-CoA 2-C-propionyltransferase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0043875 : 2-ketobutyrate formate-lyase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0050632 : propionyl-CoA C2-trimethyltridecanoyltransferase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0043806 : keto acid formate lyase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a butanoyl group:

  • GO:0050182 : phosphate butyryltransferase activity [1 gene product]

transferring a caffeoyl group:

  • GO:0050266 : rosmarinate synthase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a cinnamoyl group:

  • GO:0047182 : alcohol O-cinnamoyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a coumaroyl group:

  • GO:0047634 : agmatine N4-coumaroyltransferase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0033811 : flavonol-3-O-triglucoside O-coumaroyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a galloyl group:

  • GO:0047201 : beta-glucogallin O-galloyltransferase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0047176 : beta-glucogallin-tetrakisgalloylglucose O-galloyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a malonyl group:

  • anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside 6'''-O-malonyltransferase activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0033809 : anthocyanin 6-O-malonyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring an arachidonoyl group:

  • GO:0047177 : glycerophospholipid arachidonoyl-transferase (CoA-independent) activity [0 gene products]
  • GO:0047193 : CDP-acylglycerol O-arachidonoyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a 2-methylpropanoyl group:

  • GO:0043754 : dihydrolipoyllysine-residue (2-methylpropanoyl)transferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a naphthoyl group:

  • GO:0034848 : naphthyl-2-oxomethyl-succinyl-CoA succinyl transferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a phenylacetyl group:

  • GO:0047947 : glutamine N-phenylacetyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a choloyl group:

  • GO:0047963 : glycine N-choloyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a caffeoyl group:

  • GO:0047168 : isocitrate O-dihydroxycinnamoyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a lipoyl/octanoyl group:

  • GO:0033819 : lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase activity [1 gene product]

transferring a piperoyl group:

  • GO:0050199 : piperidine N-piperoyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a mycolyl group:

  • GO:0050348 : trehalose O-mycolyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

transferring a feruloyl group:

  • GO:0050366 : tyramine N-feruloyltransferase activity [0 gene products]

?

  • GO:0008415 : acyltransferase activity [1773 gene products]