TCA Cycle Process-Function Links
TCA cycle cross products (also known as: Nothing is simple) My textbook of choice has been Biochemistry, by Abeles, Frey, and Jencks (Jones and Bartlett, 1992), a text that has a more mechanistic slant.
Before we get to the actual TCA cycle, pyruvate (from glycolysis) is first converted into acetyl-CoA by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex:
pyruvate + NAD + CoASH == Acetyl-COA + CO2+ NADH
This is multistep reaction carried out by a large complex; Reactome breaks this down into5 steps.
- pyruvate + TPP => 2-(alpha-hydroxåyethyl)-TPP + CO2 REACT_466.2
- 2-(alpha-hydroxyethyl)-TPP + lipoamide => S-acetyldihydrolipoamide + TPP REACT_1449.1
- S-acetyldihydrolipoamide + CoA => acetyl-CoA + dihydrolipoamide REACT_1323.1
- dihydrolipoamide + FAD => lipoamide + FADH2 [pyruvate dehydrogenase] REACT_601.1
- FADH2 + NAD+ => FAD + NADH + H+ [pyruvate dehydrogenase] REACT_1397.1
This is multistep reaction carried out by a large complex; Reactome breaks this down into several steps.
GO:0050243 has NADP+
I have at least 4 textbooks in front of me indicating that this reaction uses NAD, not NADP.
But, I see a lot of papers indicating NADP;
So, I suggest the def be altered to
pyruvate + NAD/NADP + CoASH==Acetyl-CoA +CO2+NADPH
comment from Midori: GO got its definition from EC 18.104.22.168, and I'm a bit reluctant to diverge, since EC, MetaCyc, KEGG, BRENDA all have just NADP. We could add another term or two, though.
comment from Peter E: I've poked around some more and found published data for oxidative decarboxylation reactions in which the reducing equivalents are finally transferred to NADP+ and not to NAD+: PMID: 3110154 - pyruvate dehydrogenase from Euglena gracilis PMID: 11319255 - same enzyme from Euglena and from Cryptosporidium parvum PMID: 14526024 - alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase from Azoarcus evansii In all cases the authors appear to be asserting that the overall process in which the enzyme complex functions is an anaerobic counterpart to the aerobic mammalian one. However, that aerobic - anaerobic distinction is fairly basic, so it could be the basis for splitting GO:0050243 into two, one with NAD as the acceptor and one with NADP as the acceptor, as has already been done for other children of GO:0016620 Alternatively, split and take advantage of ChEBI, and use ChEBI:13390 NAD(P)+ "A coenzyme that may be NAD+ or NADP+" as the cofactor for a single molecular function term.
GO:0004738 has no reaction:appears to be a place holder
comment from Midori: It's a grouping term for all of the pyruvate dehydrogenases, no matter which cofactor they use.
comment from Harold: actually, if it is meant to convey the steps listed above,then it seems to me to be a process term having "has_part" relationships to the activities listed above.
Anyways, here we go
GO term:tricarboxylic acid cycle
Synonym: citric acid cycle,Krebs cycle, TCA cycle
Definition:A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively oxidized to two C02 and four pairs of electrons are transferred to coenzymes. The acetyl group combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which undergoes successive transformations to isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, succinate, fumarate, malate, and oxaloacetate again, thus completing the cycle. In eukaryotes the tricarboxylic acid is confined to the mitochondria. See also glyoxylate cycle.
This term has child,
GO term:reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle
Synonym: reductive carboxylate cycle, reductive carboxylic acid cycle,reductive citric acid pathway,reductive Kreb's cycle, reductive TCA cycle
Definition:A pathway leading to the fixation of two molecules of CO2 and the production of one molecule of acetyl-CoA; essentially the oxidative TCA cycle running in reverse. Acetyl-CoA is reductively carboxylated to pyruvate, from which all other central metabolites can be formed. Most of the enzymes of reductive and oxidative TCA cycle are shared, with the exception of three key enzymes that allow the cycle to run in reverse: ATP citrate lyase, 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and fumarate reductase. 2-oxoglutarate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase catalyzes the carboxylation of succinyl-CoA to 2-oxoglutarate, ATP citrate lyase the ATP-dependent cleavage of citrate to acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate, and fumarate reductase the reduction of fumarate forming succinate.
Because this uses different enzymes for certain steps, I do not think this should be a child of TCA, but a sib of THE TCA cycle. It's strictly not a reverse of THE TCA cycle.
I only consider the the TCA cycle in what follows.
The cycle has 8 or 9 steps (depending on textbook), but 14 reactions. Step 1.5 consists of 5 carried out by a large alpha-ketoglutaric acid dehydrogenase complex, analogous to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex above.
1. TCA cycle part1:CO2 production
- condensation of oxaloaceate + acetyl-CoA to give citric acid (citrate); GO:0004108,citrate (Si)-synthase activity, REACT_1282.2 , Acetyl-CoA + H2O + Oxaloacetate => Citrate + CoA
- change citrate to isocitrate using GO:0003994, aconitate hydratase activity (water off, water on), REACT_1898.2 Citrate <=> cis-Aconitate + H2O; REACT_1898.2,cis-Aconitate + H2O <=> Isocitrate
- oxidize isocitrate to oxalosuccinate (NAD) GO:0004449, isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity (see note 1 at end). REACT_1068.2 Isocitrate + NAD+ => alpha-ketoglutarate + CO2 + NADH + H+
- decarboxylate oxalosuccinate to make alpha-ketoglutaric acid (glutarate) (note 2)
- (Note 3) decarboxylate alpha ketoglutarate (and condense acetyl-CoA) to give succinyl- CoA,REACT_140.2 . This is very complex; catalyzed by an entire complex:
- (Note 4) alpha-ketoglutarate + TPP => 3-carboxy-1-hydroxypropyl-TPP + CO2 ;REACT_1137.1;GO:0004591, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring) activity
- 3-carboxy-1-hydroxypropyl-TPP + lipoamide => S-succinyldihydrolipoamide + TPPREACT_1085.1;GO:0004591, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring) activity
- S-succinyldihydrolipoamide + CoA => succinyl-CoA + dihydrolipoamide REACT_248.1 GO:0004149, dihydrolipoyllysine-residue succinyltransferase activity
- dihydrolipoamide + FAD => lipoamide + FADH2 [alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase] REACT_2087.2; GO:0004148 dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase activity
- FADH2 + NAD+ => FAD + NADH + H+ [alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase]R REACT_140.2, GO:0004148, dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase activity
2. TCA cycle part2: Regeneration of Oxaloacetate
- Get rid of the CoA to give succinate (succinic acid) + GTP; GO:0004776, succinate-CoA ligase (GDP-forming) activity REACT_337.1
GDP + Orthophosphate + Succinyl-CoA <=> GTP + Succinate + CoA
- Oxidize succinate to fumarate (using FAD); Succinate <=> Fumarate (with FAD redox reaction on enzyme); REACT_1667.3; GO:0000104, succinate dehydrogenase activity
- Add water to fumarate to give L-malate; REACT_1656.2; Fumarate + H2O <=> (S)-Malate; GO:0004333, fumarate hydratase activity
- oxididize malate to oxaloacetate (NAD). ; REACT_2172.2; (S)-Malate + NAD+ <=> Oxaloacetate + NADH + H+; Go to Part 1.1; GO:0030060, L-malate dehydrogenase activity (has several sibs, all children of GO:0016615.malate dehydrogenase activity. however, GO:0030060 is the one for TCA cycle
1 There is also GO:0004450, isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity 2.Isocitrate dehydrogenase catalyzes both 1.3 and1.4 Reactome combines 1.3 and1.4 into one reaction, with oxalosuccinate as in intermediate 3.From Reactome:The conversion of alpha-ketoglutarate (2-oxoglutarate) to succinyl-CoA exactly parallels that for the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA. The pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes are structurally homologous, containing homologous E1 and E2 proteins, and identical E3 proteins and cofactors. 4.GO:0004591, oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (succinyl-transferring) activity,appear to include step 1.5.1 and 1.5.2
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