Directly positively regulates

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Overview and Scope of Use

  • This relation is used in GO-CAMs but not in standard annotation extensions.
  • This relation links two activities when the upstream activity has a positive (increasing or activating) effect on the immediately downstream activity. Immediately means there is no intervening activity. The mechanism by which the upstream activity controls the downstream activity must be known. The regulation commonly involves direct physical interaction between the two enablers, but may also occur when the upstream activity produces or degrades a small molecule regulator of the downstream activity. The 'directly positively regulates' relation is commonly used between successive functions in a regulatory pathway, such as a signaling pathway.
  • The 'directly positively regulates' relation is used to relate two GO molecular functions when:
    • Two activities act in direct succession (i.e. there is no intervening molecular function)
    • The upstream activity exerts its regulation on the downstream activity by a direct effect on the enabler of the downstream function
    • The direct effect on the enabler enhances its ability to execute its function

Annotation Usage Guidelines

  • What to capture
    • Upstream activities that control the activity of a downstream activity.
  • What not to capture
    • Activities that are constitutively occurring upstream of a downstream activity.


  • In the epidermal growth factor signaling pathway via MAPK cascade, a number of molecular functions directly positively regulate one another to transmit the presence of an external signal, an EGF ligand, through successive downstream molecular functions to ultimately effect transcription of specific target genes.
  • Examples include the relationship between the receptor ligand activity and the epidermal growth factor receptor activity; the relationship between the guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity and the protein-membrane adaptor activity; and the relationships between the protein serine/threonine kinase activities of the MAPK cascade. PMID:18050474

Directly positively regulates

Directly positively regulates

Directly positively regulates

GO-CAM model

Ontology Usage Guidelines

This relation is used in the ontology in the logical definitions of 'molecular function activator activity'.

Relations Ontology (RO)

directly positively regulates

Review Status

Last reviewed: February 15, 2023

Reviewed by: Cristina Casals, Marc Feuermann, Pascale Gaudet, David Hill, Patrick Masson, Paul Thomas, Kimberly Van Auken

Back to: Annotation Relations